Modern chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for improved incorporation of nano‐scale additives into solid propellants. Various. Kumar Ishitha, P. A. Ramakrishna. () Activated charcoal: as burn rate modifier and its mechanism of action in non-metalized composite solid propellants. The combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants containing ne ammonium perchlo- rate (AP) was investigated using laser-excited, .

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In addition, the high-power rocketry community regularly uses APCP in the form of commercially available propellant “reloads”, as well as single-use motors.

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As a result of the development of nanotechnology, researches on nanocatalysts, including nanometer CuO, are surged up. APCP deflagrates from the surface of exposed propellant in the combustion chamber. It means that the increasing of nano-CuO dispersibility in HTPB propellant not only decreases the decomposition temperature, but also decreases the deviation of decomposition temperature.

APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing as with black powder. Results and discussion The activation energy and kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of propellant samples were calculated by Ozawa method using DSC curves at different heating rates: Far pfopellants the situation in Table 6the decomposition temperatures of the propellants, in Table 2are still decreasing with the increase of kneading time after 3 hours.

Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is a composite propellant, meaning that it has both fuel and oxidizer mixed with a rubbery binderall combined into a homogeneous mixture.


Because of little diameter and proportion, nanocatalyst becomes the most difficult dispersing composition of many combustion systems.

In other words, the decomposition mechanism of AP powder of fine particle size differs that of AP of larger particle size. Use of APCP outside hobby use is regulated by state and municipal fire codes.

Most catalysts in the composite propellant act on the composition of AP. Kneading time ranged from 1 to 5 hours to change the dispersibility of nano-CuO catalyst in the propellant. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. These oxygen molecules will be used as oxidizer in binders combustion, when the AP is used in a composite propellant or even when is burning by itself.

Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard R. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. To achieve different visual effects and flight characteristics, hobby APCP suppliers offer a variety of different characteristic propellant types. The differences found in the kinetics parameters between the original and the aged samples, specially the activation energy Eaconfirm the practical observation that energetic materials like the composites used in solid propellant rocket motors require less energy to start the combustion process as they age.

The temperatures of exothermic peaks, T pcan be used to calculate the kinetic parameters by the Ozawa method [ 1617 ]. The propellant particle size distribution has a profound impact on APCP rocket motor performance. The value of STD and RSD of explosion heat decreases with the kneading time less than 3 hours then increases smoothly.


In this fashion, the geometry of the propellant inside the rocket motor plays an important role in the overall motor performance. Propellahts gain in chemical speed reactions may be converted in gain in thrust of rocket motors and specific impulse of solid propellant grains. DSC thermal decomposition curves of AP.

Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmen :: TNO Repository

In small APCP motors with high aluminum content, the residence time of the combustion gases does not allow for full combustion of the aluminum and thus a substantial fraction of the aluminum is burned outside the combustion chamber, leading to decreased performance.

The environmental fate of the hydrogen chloride is not well documented. Cohen [ 24 ] studied the kinetics of the surface pyrolysis of HTPB and, assuming zero-order kinetics, they found the activation energy of 71 kJ mol In medium- and high-power rocket applications, APCP has propellants replaced black powder as a rocket propellant.

The nanometer catalysts show excellent catalysis on the thermal decomposition of AP. The explosion heat value of these data increase with the kneading time before 3 wp, and the value decrease with the kneading time after 3 hours. Smaller AP and Al particles lead to higher combustion efficiency but also lead to increased linear burn rate. Every combustion heat data of the three areas is a mean value of three testing data.