Bianculli, AC () Negotiating Trade Liberalization in Argentina and Chile: When Fulquet, G () El Proyecto Educativo Para El MERCOSUR Y Los Debates En Torno . Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. . Journals A-Z. editing, and Michelle Furman for her excellent design work. Joseph S. Tulchin resistance of Mercosur countries, particularly Brazil and Argentina: the launching Red de Investigaciones Económicas del Mercosur, Edificio Mercosur,. Piso 3. Alaska, Arizona (a minimum of 10 US citizens is required, the majority of them . Tucson: University of Arizona Press. “Etnografía del Budismo Zen Argentino: Ritual, Cuerpo y Poder en la “Nuevas religiones japonesas en el Mercosur: La Transnacionalización Ignorada. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.

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Commitments on Market Access: A smaller number of private-sector representatives were also interviewed. Social and healthcare services not included in 1.

Mode of supply 3 was restrained by the suspension of new authorizations for establishment removed in The GATS offers largely reflect this phenomenon. Cross-border trade except for freight insurance is unbounded and the authorization of new entities is suspended however, the deregulation implemented in ended the suspension in the establishment of new insurance firms.

Insurance services argentinna unbound for Modes 1 and 2 market access and national treatment.

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This confronted them with the imperative to understand the nature of the issues under negotiation and the implications of alternative modalities and commitments. Second, in four out of five sectors in which Chile undertook market access commitments business services, communications, financial services and tourismthe coverage ratio was lower than that of Argentina. Moreover, in areas where there was not a single responsible agency such as business servicesthe task force had to engage directly in identifying existing regulations and drawing direct inputs from the private sector such as professional associations.

First, the absence of commitments should not be taken as equivalent to the existence of restrictions, since a low level of commitments can reflect strategic behaviour.


This may have been a reaction to the demands of the US government concerning the level of commitments to be undertaken in this sector. The ratio is also comparatively low in OECD countries except for environmental servicesbut still higher than the Latin American average.


This was the third protocol, adopted in July and in force since January Insurance and insurance-related services were either unlisted or listed with restrictions except maritime and air transportation insurance. Section draws some conclusions from the case study.

In the next section we examine the broad evidence on the content of the Argentine list of offers, before turning to the issue of what may have accounted for the outcome.

Based on Berlinski and Romero We are argenfina grateful to those who agreed to share their time and experience with us. Opinions expressed in the case studies and any errors or omissions therein are the responsibility of their authors and not of the editors of this volume or of the institutions with which they are affiliated.

The only sub-sectors unbound were services auxiliary to insurance including broking and agency servicesother financial services and new financial services except national treatment for commercial presence, bound without restrictions. This hypothesis may be edutorial to understand trade policy-making in normal times, but it may shed less light during periods of stress and deep policy reform. Commitments on National Treatment. Strategic considerations or domestic group pressures may have played a role in insurance commitments.

The number of commitments negotiated was higher than in the case of Chile and slightly higher than Brazil.

In the five remaining service sectors of which finance and communications stand out in terms of economic significancethe extent of the commitments was comparatively generous in terms of both coverage and depth.

We found the case study interesting because it underlines the domestic roots of international trade policy-making and illustrates the way in which the international trade regime can be used instrumentally by national authorities willing to consolidate their policy preferences.

Immediately after the launching of the Uruguay Round UR in argentiina, the Argentine government allocated the functional responsibility for the technical work on services trade to the Economy Ministry, at that time still responsible for the conduct of international trade negotiations.

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A number of specific market access problems were identified in areas such as construction and consulting especially in Brazilbut a decision was made to take these issues to the sub-regional rather than the multilateral negotiating table. In effect, after the conclusion of the UR the Argentine government made commitments in the context of the negotiations for a protocol on maritime transportation, but these negotiations broke down.


According to this view, one key factor behind trade policy formation would be the relative influence of alternative interest groups. Recreational, cultural and sports services excluding audiovisual services. In the sector of construction and construction-related engineering services all sub-sectors were bound with no restrictions except for general construction works for civil engineering, which was excluded.

In the case of communications Argentina undertook commitments for approximately two-thirds of the total number of negotiable items.

Brazil and Chile were also above the Latin American average in terms of sectoral coverage, but well below in terms of depth of commitments. In that agency produced one of the earliest proposals on services negotiations submitted to the GATT by a developing contracting party.

This suggests that strategic or reciprocity considerations, the last of which was at the centre of financial services negotiations, did not play a relevant role.

At first sight, the Argentine case does not seem to fit well with any of these explanations. Many public sz interviewed underlined that one of the major obstacles faced was not so much that of gathering the required normative information, but interpreting it in the light of what was necessary to build a national list of commitments. This demanded regular consultations with other public-sector agencies, such as the Central Bank, the Insurance Superintendent, the Secretaries of Communications, Transportation and Tourism, the National Immigration Service and other agencies wl normative and regulatory responsibilities for public ediotrial.

In contrast to the GATT agreement, negotiating the GATS required close co-operation between different governmental agencies and an adequate understanding of a regime still in the making. The elaboration of the GATS list of commitments faced many technical and information obstacles. Where does Argentina fit? Argentine trade officials had traditionally focused on trade in medcosur particularly temperate agriculture products and were thus not prepared for undertaking international negotiations in services.

In others, such as environmental and edutorial services, technical uncertainties and poor information may have also played a role. On the other hand, statistical information on services trade was scarce, unreliable and generally unsuited for providing a basis for negotiation Marchetti