ECOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF PARASITISM IN DAPHNIA PDF

1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.

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Group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia

What I find more interesting than the fact that the parasite harms its host are questions regarding the covariables of the degree of harm. However, the microsporidium Larssonia sp.

The growing awareness that parasites are ubiquitous and may play an important role in most natural ecosystems has changed this, as the increasing number of publications about Daphnia parasites and epibionts confirms Figure 1.

Every parasite has a host, but no parasite Parasite: The strength of this effect was shown to depend both on host clone and parasite isolate, with local parasite isolates having the strongest effect. Everything you always wanted to know about parasitism in Daphnia.

Evidence from a cross-inoculation experiment. Conceptually, parasite and pathogen are the same.

If parasites are locally adapted and thus cause more harm to their local hosts, a host that migrates into such a population should, one expects, suffer less on average from the local parasites than the local hosts. State of ill-health produced by a disease. It has been speculated that this specific pathology is adaptive for P. Support Center Support Center. Locally adapted parasites usually show higher levels of damage and have higher levels of transmission stage production in their local hosts.

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In the literature on Cladocera Cladocera: The degree to which parasites damage their hosts varies greatly among parasite and host species, parasite and host genotypes, and also depends on the interaction between the two.

If you find errors, disagree with certain statements, or find that I neglected important information, I would be happy to read your comments. Occurs kf an adaptation in one species reduces the fitness of individuals in another species, thereby selecting in pf of counter-adaptations in the other species. Because usually everything with invertebrates takes longer at lower temperature, this observation may simply be the result of the hosts’ and parasites Parasite: In these studies, specificity was judged on replication across numerous rock pool populations.

Print view The Book: These simple experiments may be used to illustrate principles of host—parasite interactions. Some authors reported that hosts, rather than parasites, can be locally adapted Morand et al. Cysticercus Cercocystis mirabilis nov. There is, moreover, so much information about parasitism in the Cladocera that I have decided to split the work into two parts and publish it as two independent books.

Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia by Dieter Ebert

This chapter provides a short introduction to epidemiolog topic of the book. However, the alternative, that single P. Chapter 7 is on host ranges and discusses what we know about the specificity of Daphnia parasites.

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Order of the Entomostraca. Genetic composition of an organism as distinguished from its physical appearance phenotype. Helminths are not a taxonomic group. They have a bivalve shell covering the body but not parasjtism head, four to six pairs of legs, and two pairs of antennae used for swimming. The next chapters describe the interactions between parasites and their Daphnia hosts.

Z Parasitkunde6: A central chapter of this book is “Epidemiology. On the other hand, hosts are the environment for the parasites and thus define their niche. As my interest centers more on parasitism, I focus here on parasites, leaving aside epibionts.

When investigating potential hosts, one must consider a number of questions whose answers are not as clear-cut as the relative ease of studying host specificity in Daphnia might suggest. Some parasites appeared specific in one pond but unspecific in another pond.

Furthermore, this parasite effect interacted both with host genotype Genotype: Lower food quantity or quality generally reduces fecundity but expands life span. See also cyclic parthenogenesis.